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I am just a regular guy who is learning the importance of happiness through diet and exercise. I am in school for sociology and psychology, I do not have a formal degree in nutrition or fitness. I do all research on my own time through books, internet, friends, documentaries, and school. I believe in basics, and I want to clear through the smoke surrounding a lot of nutrition and fitness claims pushed to the public, and find the one's they try to hide.I also like to discuss other topics related to happiness.

Thursday, May 31, 2012

Nutrient Timing Outline


Outline of the book The Future of Sports Nutrition: Nutrient Timing by Ivy & Portman Ph.D. All information is based on scientific research and experiments. Highly informative for anyone who wants to be healthy, lose weight, gain weight, or build muscle and/or strength.


 3 Phases:
            Energy Phase (10 mins prior to and during a workout)
                        - During your workout when muscles need to release sufficient energy
                        to drive muscle contraction.
                        - Need carbohydrates during this phase, as well as protein, amino
                        acids, and vitamins
            Anabolic Phase (Within 45 minutes after a workout)
                        - 45 minute window following a workout in which muscle initiates
                        the repair of muscle protein and replenishes muscle glycogen.
                        - Muscles are sensitive to insulin during this time, but become insulin
                        resistant more and more over time.
            Growth Phase (First 4 hours and 16-18 hours after a workout)
                        - First 4 hours after a workout is Rapid segment where you maintain
                        increased insulin (fights cortisol) sensitivity and anabolic state.
                        - Up to 16-18 hours after is Sustained Segment where you maintain
                        positive nitrogen balance and stimulate protein synthesis, as well as
                        promote protein turnover and muscle development.
- End of the anabolic phase until beginning of next workout
                        - Muscle enzymes are involved in increasing proteins and size of
                        muscle fibers, as well as fully replenishing glycogen stores.
                        - Protein and carbohydrates are important during this phase.



Energy Systems and Macronutrients
            Anaerobic Energy Systems: Phosphagen and Glycolisis
                        - Get ATP for muscle contraction by converting glycogen (stored carb)
                        into ATP through glycolysis or the breakdown of creatine phosphate
                        - Two systems, Phosphagen and Glycolisis. Glycolysis produces lactic
                        acid as a by-product.
                        - Provides energy for short bursts, high intensity
            Aerobic Energy System
                        - Produces energy for long periods of work, low intensity.
                        - Breaks down carbs, fats, and finally proteins when needed for energy
                        - Slower than anaerobic and takes place in the mitochondria
            Carbohydrates
                        - Come from muscle glycogen stores and blood glucose
                        - Stored in muscle and liver, some in the blood
            Fats
                        - Mostly stored in adipose tissue, not readily available
                        - Must be broken down into fatty acids and transported to muscles
                        and further through the plasma membrane to mitochondria.
            Proteins
                        - Made of amino acids, used when carbs are low
                        - When glycogen stores of liver and muscles are low, muscle proteins
                        are broken down into amino acids and released into the blood.
                        - This is how you lose muscle mass if no glycogen stores available

Hormones:
            Catabolic
                        - Major ones are glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol.
                        - Break down fuel stores like fat and glycogen, and protein if cortisol
                        - Glucagon increases breakdown of fat, released by the pancreas when
                        low blood glucose to try to raise blood glucose level by increasing
                        release of glucose from liver and activating gluconeogenesis.
                        - Cortisol breaks down muscle proteins along with fat and carbs
            Anabolic
                        - Mainly testosterone, growth hormone, IGF-1, insulin.
                        - Testosterone blocks cortisol and stimulates protein synthesis
                        - Growth hormone stimulates bone and cartilage growth and protein
                        synthesis.
                        - IGF-1 stimulates growth of bone, cartilage, and muscle
                        - Insulin effects muscle synthesis, degradation, and glycogen
                        replenishment

                                                                 
ENRGY PHASE (4 Main Goals):
           
(1) Increase nutrient delivery to muscles and spare muscle glycogen and protein.           
            -Consume a protein and carb drink right before and/or during exercise to
            help maintain muscle glycogen and remain strong throughout training.
                       
(2) Limit Immune system suppression
            - Supplement carb (sugar) drink to decrease cortisol by as much as 80%, and
            help fight against its effects of suppressing the immune system as well as
            its catabolic effects on muscle tissue.

(3) Minimize muscle damage
            - Vitamins C and E and antioxidants may help minimize muscle damage if
            taken during exercise. They have been shown to reduce levels of CPK, an
            important marker of muscle damage.

(4) Set the nutritional stage for a faster recovery after your workout
            - Consume a drink before and during exercise that contains about 25-30g of
            high glycemic carbs like dextrose or sucrose, 15g whey protein, 1g leucine,
            vitamins C and E, 150-250mg sodium, 100mg potassium, 100mg magnesium.


ANABOLIC PHASE: (5 Main Goals):

(1) Shift metabolic machinery from a catabolic state to an anabolic state
            - A recovery drink containing both protein and high-glycemic carbs has the
            greatest effect on raising insulin levels; more than either nutrient alone.
            - This sets the stage for an anabolic state and nutrient uptake opportunity

(2) Speed the elimination of metabolic waste by increasing muscle blood flow
            - When lactic acid levels are high it takes longer for creatine phosphate CP
            to be restored.
            - Insulin has been shown to increase nitrous oxide (NO) production in the
            body (more than 30g arginine supplemented showed), which helps improve
            blood flow for nutrient delivery.

(3) Replenish muscle glycogen stores
            - Studies show the higher the insulin response post exercise the higher the
            rate of glycogen storage. Protein and carbs supplemented together showed
            a much greater increase in storage than either nutrient alone.
            - Better glycogen storage results in faster recovery & better future workouts
            - 45 minutes immediately following exercise. Body has depleted many
            essential amino acids, BCAA’s, and glutamine.

(4) Initiate tissue repair and set the stage for muscle growth
            - Studies show that a carbohydrate/protein supplement after exercise shows
            a 38% more effective response for protein synthesis than amino acids or
            carbs alone.
            - It also suppresses 3-methylhistidine, an indicator of muscle fiber damage

(5) Reduce muscle damage and bolster the immune system
            - Using a protein/carb recovery drink with glutamine and vitamins C and E
            added showed a great reduction in free-radical formations and CPK levels
            - A 3:1 or 4:1 ratio of carbs:protein has been shown to be best. So for every
            gram of protein, consume 3 to 4 grams of simple carbs.


GROWTH PHASE
RAPID SEGMENT: Up to four hours after workout (2 Main Goals):

(1) Maintain increased insulin sensitivity
            - Further consumption of a lower supplementation of carbs with protein is
            needed after anabolic phase supplementation to keep blood insulin levels
            elevated, & completely recover glycogen
- A drink containing about 15g whey, 5g casein, 3g leucine, 1g glutamine,
and 2-4g high-glycemic carbs work well 3-4 hours after workout


(2) Maintain the anabolic state
            - Consuming a high carb and protein meal or supplement two hours after
            exercise and then again four hours after exercise can keep insulin levels
            spiked to their max potential for protein synthesis.
            - Leucine has shown to help maintain a high anabolic state during this time


GROWTH PHASE
SUSTAINED SEGMENT: After Rapid Segment until next workout (2 Main Goals):

(1) Maintain positive nitrogen balance and stimulate protein synthesis
            - Numerous studies show if training intensely you should consume .9-1.25g
            of protein per pound of body weight to maintain a positive nitrogen balance
            and negative fat balance, and maximize protein synthesis.
            - Consuming 1.4g protein per kilogram body weight showed a greater
            increase in protein synthesis than consuming .9g/kg, but consuming
             2.4g/kg body weight showed no further increase.

(2) Promote protein turnover and muscle development
            - Consuming all your protein in a large meal may be less effective at
            stimulating protein synthesis than consuming a normal meal and snacking
            - You must consume more calories than you expend to maximize muscle gain
            - Diet is most important during this phase, proper balance of macronutrients
            for your goal is key during this time.


Nutrients and Sports Supplements:
            Carbohydrates
                        - Strongly stimulate insulin, which stimulates the transport of amino
                           acids into the muscle, as well as activates protein synthesis.
                        - Research has shown that a supplement with carbs and protein after
                           exercise results in 38% faster rate of protein synthesis than protein
                           alone.
            Arginine
                        -  Important in helping muscles to manufacture other amino acids
                        - Excellent stimulator of insulin and can increase blood-flow
                        - The production of nitric oxide requires arginine
            Glutamine
                        - Most abundant amino acid in the blood and muscle cells, but can be
                           depleted through strenuous exercise or injury
                        - Promotes protein synthesis and helps to maintain a positive nitrogen
                           balance, and prevents muscle breakdown.
                        - Supports a healthy immune system
            BCAAs (Branched-Chain Amino Acids)
                        - Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine. Help prevent muscle degradation

            Creatine
                        - Can increase strength and muscle mass gains, necessary for creatine
                           phosphate (CP) production which rapidly resynthesizes ATP

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